英語で学ぶ ~ FOMC(米国連邦公開市場委員会)~ 米国の金融政策(金利、物価、雇用)






What is the FOMC?

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) is a key component of the Federal Reserve System in the United States. It is responsible for making decisions regarding monetary policy, specifically determining the direction of interest rates and managing the money supply to achieve the Federal Reserve’s dual mandate: stable prices and maximum sustainable employment.
Federal Open Market Committee(FOMC、米国連邦公開市場委員会)は、アメリカ合衆国の連邦準備制度の重要な構成要素です。FOMCは金融政策に関する意思決定を行い、具体的には金利の方向を決定し、連邦準備制度の二つの目標である物価の安定と最大限の持続可能な雇用を達成するために通貨供給を管理します。

Here are some key points about the FOMC:

  1. Composition: The FOMC consists of 12 members, including the seven members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and five presidents of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks.
    構成: FOMCは、連邦準備制度理事会の7人のメンバーと、12の連邦準備銀行のうち5つの銀行総裁を含む12人のメンバーで構成されています。
  2. Meetings: The FOMC typically meets eight times a year to assess economic and financial conditions and decide on monetary policy actions. However, it can convene more often if needed.
    会合: FOMCは通常、経済および金融状況を評価し、金融政策の方針を決定するために年に8回会合を開催します。ただし、必要に応じてより頻繁に開催されることもあります。
  3. Policy Tools: The FOMC primarily uses two tools to implement monetary policy: the federal funds rate and open market operations. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which banks lend to each other overnight, and changes in this rate influence broader interest rates in the economy. Open market operations involve buying or selling government securities to influence the money supply.
    政策手段: FOMCは主に2つの手段を使用して金融政策を実施します。一つは連邦ファンド金利で、もう一つは公開市場操作です。連邦ファンド金利は銀行間でオーバーナイトで融資する金利で、この金利の変動が経済全体の金利に影響を与えます。公開市場操作は、国債の買い取りや売却を通じて通貨供給に影響を与えます。
  4. Communication: Following each meeting, the FOMC releases a statement that outlines its decisions regarding interest rates and provides insights into the committee’s economic outlook and policy stance. The FOMC Chair also holds press conferences to further explain the committee’s rationale.
    コミュニケーション: 各会合の後、FOMCは金利に関する決定や委員会の経済見通しと方針に関する洞察を提供する声明を発表します。FOMCの議長は記者会見を開催し、さらに委員会の理論を説明します。
  5. Forward Guidance: The FOMC sometimes provides forward guidance, indicating its intentions for future policy actions based on its economic projections. This guidance helps shape market expectations.
    フォワードガイダンス: FOMCは時折、将来の政策行動に関する意図を示すフォワードガイダンスを提供し、経済予測に基づいて将来の方針を形成します。
  6. Economic Projections: The FOMC releases economic projections, including the famous “dot plot,” which represents individual members’ expectations for future interest rates.
    経済予測: FOMCは「ドットプロット」と呼ばれる個々のメンバーの将来の金利に対する予測を示す経済予測を発表します。
  7. Dual Mandate: The FOMC is tasked with promoting maximum employment and stable prices. It seeks to strike a balance between fostering economic growth and preventing inflation from rising too rapidly.
    二つの目標: FOMCは最大の雇用を促進し、安定した物価を確保することが求められています。経済成長を促進し、インフレを急速に上昇させないようにバランスを取ることを目指しています。
  8. Independence: The FOMC operates independently within the government to make decisions that are free from short-term political influence, allowing it to focus on achieving its long-term goals.
    独立性: FOMCは政府内で独立して活動し、長期的な目標に焦点を当てるため、短期的な政治的な影響から解放された意思決定を行います。

The decisions made by the FOMC have significant implications for financial markets, including the foreign exchange market, as they impact interest rates and influence investor expectations. Traders and analysts closely monitor FOMC meetings and statements for insights into future monetary policy actions.

Interest Rates and the USD:

  • One of the primary tools the FOMC uses to influence the economy is the federal funds rate, which is the interest rate at which banks lend to each other overnight.
  • Example: In December 2015, the FOMC raised interest rates for the first time in nearly a decade. This decision was based on the belief that the U.S. economy was strong enough to withstand higher rates. Following the announcement, the U.S. dollar strengthened against many major currencies.
    例: 2015年12月にFOMCは約10年ぶりに金利を引き上げました。これは米国経済がより高い金利に耐えられるとの判断に基づくものでした。発表後、米ドルは多くの主要通貨に対して強くなりました。

Forward Guidance:

  • FOMC statements often include forward guidance, providing insights into the committee’s future policy intentions.
  • Example: In August 2020, the FOMC announced a shift in its policy framework, indicating a willingness to let inflation run above the 2% target for some time. This dovish stance was designed to support the economy. The U.S. dollar initially weakened in response to this announcement.
    例: 2020年8月にFOMCは政策フレームワークの変更を発表し、将来的なインフレ率が2%の目標を上回ることを許容する姿勢を示しました。この鳩派の姿勢は経済を支援するためのもので、この発表に対して初期には米ドルが弱含みました。

Market Expectations and the “Dot Plot”:

  • The FOMC releases a “dot plot” which shows individual members’ projections for future interest rates.
  • Example: If the dot plot indicates a consensus for higher rates in the future, it may lead to a stronger U.S. dollar as investors adjust their expectations. Conversely, a dovish dot plot may lead to a weaker dollar.
    例: ドットプロットが将来の金利上昇に対するコンセンサスを示す場合、投資家が期待を調整するため、これが米ドルを強くする可能性があります。逆に、鳩派のドットプロットは米ドルを弱める可能性があります。

Quantitative Easing (QE) Programs:

  • During times of economic stress, the FOMC may implement QE, buying financial assets to inject money into the economy.
  • Example: After the 2008 financial crisis, the FOMC implemented several rounds of QE. These programs aimed to lower long-term interest rates and stimulate economic activity. The U.S. dollar’s response varied, but in some instances, it weakened as a result of increased money supply.
    例: 2008年の金融危機後、FOMCは複数のラウンドでQEを実施しました。これらのプログラムは長期金利を引き下げ、経済活動を刺激することを目的としています。米ドルの反応は様々でしたが、マネーサプライの増加により米ドルが弱まることがありました。

Inflation Targeting:

  • The FOMC has a dual mandate of stable prices and maximum sustainable employment. Changes in inflation expectations can impact currency values.
  • Example: If the FOMC signals a commitment to achieving and maintaining a higher level of inflation, it might initially lead to a weaker U.S. dollar as markets adjust to the new policy stance.
    例: FOMCがより高いインフレ水準の達成と維持へのコミットメントを示す場合、これが初期には米ドルを弱める原因となるかもしれません。

How Japanese FX Traders Can React:

  • December 2018 Rate Hike:
    • In December 2018, the FOMC raised interest rates for the fourth time that year. This move initially led to a stronger U.S. dollar against the yen as higher rates made the dollar more attractive.
  • March 2020 Emergency Measures:
    • In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the FOMC implemented emergency measures, including cutting interest rates to near zero and restarting QE. This initially weakened the U.S. dollar against the yen as investors sought safety in the Japanese currency.
  • June 2023 Forward Guidance:
    • The FOMC, in its June 2023 meeting, provided forward guidance indicating a possible tightening of monetary policy in the near future. This led to a strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the yen as traders adjusted their expectations.

Japanese FX traders should closely monitor FOMC meetings, statements, and economic projections, and consider the broader market context to make informed trading decisions. The impact on currency pairs can vary, and traders should be agile in responding to changing market dynamics.